Qualifications and Capabilities of the Certified Registered Nurse Anesthetist
This information has been prepared by the American Association of Nurse Anesthetists (AANA) to provide information about the qualifications and capabilities of Certified Registered Nurse Anesthetists (CRNAs). The practice of anesthesia is a recognized specialty within the profession of nursing. As one of the first nursing specialty groups, CRNAs have a longstanding commitment to high standards in a demanding field. As independently licensed healthcare professionals, CRNAs are responsible and accountable for their practice.
How do I become a Certified Registered Nurse Anesthetist?
In order to be a CRNA one must:
- Graduate from a nurse anesthesia educational program accredited by the Council on Accreditation of Nurse Anesthesia Educational Programs (COA) or its predecessor.
- Pass the certification examination administered by the Council on Certification of Nurse Anesthetists or its predecessor.
Since its organization in 1931, the AANA has placed its responsibilities to the public above or equal to its responsibilities to its membership. The association has produced education and practice standards, implemented a certification process for nurse anesthetists (1945) and developed an accreditation program for nurse anesthesia education (1952). It was a leader in forming multidisciplinary councils with public representation to fulfill the profession's autonomous credentialing functions.
Today, more than 52,000 CRNAs administer approximately 43 million anesthetics in the United States each year. In addition, CRNAs administer anesthesia for all types of surgical cases, from the simplest to the most complex. CRNAs are the primary anesthesia professionals in rural America; in some states CRNAs are the sole providers in nearly 100 percent of the rural hospitals. CRNAs work in every setting in which anesthesia is delivered: traditional hospital surgical suites and obstetrical delivery rooms, ambulatory surgical centers, and the offices of dentists, podiatrists, and plastic surgeons.
Education of Nurse Anesthetists
Most programs exceed these minimum requirements. In addition, many require study in methods of scientific inquiry and statistics, as well as active participation in student-generated and faculty-sponsored research.
Clinical residencies afford supervised experiences for students during which time they are able to learn anesthesia techniques, test theory, and apply knowledge to clinical problems. Students gain experience with patients of all ages who require medical, surgical, obstetrical, dental, and pediatric interventions.
Accreditation of Educational Programs
Certification and Recertification of Nurse Anesthetists
Recertification: A recertification program called the Continued Professional Certification (CPC) Program, which is administered by the National Board of Certification and Recertification for Nurse Anesthetists (NBCRNA), is based on eight-year periods comprised of two four-year cycles and officially began on Aug. 1, 2016. In addition to practice and license requirements, the CPC Program includes four main components: 60 Class A CE credits or traditional continuing education credits; 40 Class B credits or professional development activities; completion of Core Modules in four content areas, including airway management technique, applied clinical pharmacology, human physiology and pathophysiology, and anesthesia equipment and technology (recommended but not required); and pass a comprehensive examination every eight years.
CRNAs practice according to their expertise, state statutes or regulations, and institutional policy.
CRNAs administer anesthesia and anesthesia-related care in four general categories: (1) preanesthetic preparation and evaluation; (2) anesthesia induction, maintenance and emergence; (3) postanesthesia care; and (4) perianesthetic and clinical support functions. The CRNA scope of practice includes, but is not limited to, the following:
- Performing and documenting a preanesthetic assessment and evaluation of the patient, including requesting consultations and diagnostic studies; selecting, obtaining, ordering, or administering preanesthetic medications and fluids; and obtaining informed consent for anesthesia.
- Developing and implementing an anesthetic plan.
- Selecting and initiating the planned anesthetic technique that may include general, regional, and local anesthesia and intravenous sedation.
- Selecting, obtaining, or administering the anesthetics, adjuvant drugs, accessory drugs, and fluids necessary to manage the anesthetic, to maintain the patient's physiologic homeostasis, and to correct abnormal responses to the anesthesia or surgery.
- Selecting, applying, or inserting appropriate noninvasive and invasive monitoring modalities for collecting and interpreting patient physiological data.
- Managing a patient's airway and pulmonary status using endotracheal intubation, mechanical ventilation, pharmacological support, respiratory therapy, or extubation.
- Managing emergence and recovery from anesthesia by selecting, obtaining, ordering, or administering medications, fluids, or ventilatory support in order to maintain homeostasis, to provide relief from pain and anesthesia side effects, or to prevent or manage complications.
- Releasing or discharging patients from a post-anesthesia care area, and providing post-anesthesia follow-up evaluation and care related to anesthesia side effects or complications.
- Ordering, initiating or modifying pain relief therapy, through the utilization of drugs, regional anesthetic techniques, or other accepted pain relief modalities, including labor epidural analgesia.
- Responding to emergency situations by providing airway management, administration of emergency fluids or drugs, or using basic or advanced cardiac life support techniques.
- Additional nurse anesthesia responsibilities which are within the expertise of the individual CRNA.
The functions listed above are a summary of CRNA practice and are not intended to be all-inclusive. A more specific list of CRNA functions and practice parameters is detailed in the AANA Scope of Nurse Anesthesia Practice and Standards for Nurse Anesthesia Practice. See AANA Practice Documents.
Clinical Support Services Provided Outside of Operating Room
Administrative and Other Professional Roles
CRNAs serve on various institutional committees and participate as instructors in staff development and continuing education programs for both professional and nonprofessional staff members.
CRNAs hold staff and committee appointments with state and federal governmental agencies such as state boards of nursing and the U.S. Food and Drug Administration. CRNAs are also actively involved in professional and standard-setting organizations such as the American Society for Testing and Materials.
At the AANA Nurse Anesthesia Annual Congress, educational sessions are conducted in research methodology and grantsmanship. To respond to the current healthcare environment, the AANA has focused on quality and outcome-based research. The AANA, in cooperation with the AANA Foundation, provides venues for communicating research findings.
Additionally, CRNAs have presented their research at a variety of national and international meetings, including those sponsored by nurses, physicians, physiologists and pharmacologists. Research by CRNAs has been funded by private and governmental grants, as well as by the AANA Education and Research Foundation.
The AANA's research component has grown and is supported by the AANA Foundation. The AANA Foundation approves and funds small grants for CRNAs and nurse anesthesia students. In 1998, the Research Scholar award was the first large grant awarding up to $25,000. The award was initiated to encourage CRNAs to conduct research of greater magnitude.
Some CRNAs have chosen to specialize in pediatric, obstetric, cardiovascular, plastic, dental or neurosurgical anesthesia. Others also hold credentials in fields such as critical care nursing and respiratory care. In addition to their membership in the AANA, many CRNAs also belong to a variety of anesthesia and subspecialty organizations, including the following:
- International Anesthesia Research Society
- American Society of Regional Anesthesia
- American Association of Critical Care Nurses
- American Society of Perianesthesia Nurses
- Association of PeriOperative Room Nurses
- American Association of Respiratory Care
- American Pain Society
- Society of Office Based Anesthesia
- Society for Obstetrical Anesthesia Perinatology
- Society for Ambulatory Anesthesia